[外文]A Speech Addressed by Xi Yuanping on the Symposium on Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of Mr. Xi Zhongxiong′s Birthday and the Historical Position of the Armed Uprising in Liangdan County in Gansu Province in 1932
On the occasion of people just enjoying the long holidays during the National Day and celebrating the 64th anniversary of the founding of the People′s Republic of China, we come to the beautiful Liangdan County with a mood of immerse respect and attend the symposium on the commemoration of the 100th anniversary of Mr. Xi Zhongxiong′s birthday and the historical position of the incident. As one of the successors of revolutionary predecessors, firstly, I show my gratitude to Gansu Provincial Party Committee and the Government of Gansu Province for their well-considered arrangement and organization, and I also show my greatest respect to the individuals and senior comrades of the Old Red Army who once experienced the incident and the military struggle in Shanxi, Gansu and Ningxia Province, and to the people who make great contribution to our revolutionary course in the revolutionary base areas as well. Meanwhile, on behalf of Mrs. Qi Xin, my beloved mother, I take my sincere greetings to the relevant Central Ministries, the PLA General Political Department, Lanzhou Military Region and Shanghai Municipal Party Committee, members of Shanxi Provincial Party Committee, and experts and scholars and staffs in the field of news media from the whole country.
Overthrowing the “the Three Big Mountains” and founding the PRC are the fruit of the successive and bitter struggles hundreds of revolutionary predecessors has undergone with sacrificing their lives. Both Shanxi and Gansu are the earliest provinces where the Chinese Communist Party established its own organization in Northwestern area, of which both have a correlated integrity in the history of revolutionary struggles. During the time from the Great Revolutionary War (1924-1927) to the Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937), in the area filled with revolutionary struggles, revolutionary pioneers like Liu Zhidan , Xie Zichang and Xi Zhongxiong didn′t fear the White terror facing death with equanimity, responded to the call of the Party, mobilized the mass further, conducted armed struggles actively, which shocked the rule of the Kuomintang reactionaries in both provinces. Particularly, the incident in 1932 was a fundamental military struggle.
The incident embodies the fighting spirit that revolutionary pioneers risked their lives. My father, Xi Zhongxiong, bravely participated in the revolutionary fighting emerging vigorously in Weibei area in Shanxi province when he was a student. He joined the Communist Youth League of China at the age of 12, and became a member of the Communist in his 14 at the prison. Very young as he was then, he devoted his life to the revolutionary course, therefore, he was known as one of “the Three Young Revolutionary Fighters in the Villages”. In the February 1930, he was only 16, regardless of the great grief for losing his parents and danger of approaching close to the enemy′s camp, accredited by the Party Organization, went to Changwu County in Shanxi Province for plotting the soldier movement in the Kuomintang Army. Owing to his vigilance, competence and strategy-oriented, he established secretly the Party Organization, developed the Party members together with other members join the army before him. And later, he was appointed as secretary of the Party Committee in that battalion and undertook the major task of the soldier movement. On April 2nd 1932, while the troop relieved a garrison within the Gansu and Shanxi, with the help of Liu Linpu, a Commissioner of Shanxi provincial Party Committee, the Party Committee of the battalion made a decisive decision to launch the armed uprising in Liangdan County of Gansu province, and then, adapted the troop after the armed uprising into the 5th detachment of the guerilla of both provinces of the Chinese Workers′ and Peasants′ Red Army (1928-1937). At the time, he was accredited as secretary of the guerilla Committee. The 5th detachment of the guerilla transferred to other places for thousands of miles in order to meet with the troop commanded by Liu Zhidan. But when moving forward the eastern area, the guerilla found itself besieged by the enemies. Over several bitter fighting, the guerilla suffered a severe loss, as a result, it was scattered by overwhelming enemies. After that, my father has talked of the incident one more time after the several decades. He once said that the incident was a revolutionary uprising characterized by its political and military importance. Long before that, we had conducted the complete preparations for the soldier movement, which turned out very corrective. Despite failure of the Armed Uprising in Liangdan County, it is also fundamental.
The incident arouses the political awakening that people in Gansu Province should launch armed struggles. It is also a military struggle that the Chinese Communist Party initiated with a clear plan and purpose for Kuomintang Army in Gansu Province. Take this incident as a start point, from April 1932 to April 1933, more than ten armed uprising were launched successively at Jingyuan County and Xihuachi Town in Gansu Province, which ignited the revolutionary storms in Gansu. Those troops that have participated in the armed uprising, of which some were adapted into “the detachment of the guerilla in Shanxi and Gansu of the Chinese Workers′ and Peasants′ Red Army”, some were adapted into “People′s Revolutionary Army”, and some were “the Anti Japanese volunteers in the northwestern area” etc. These troops made greatly contributions to the establishment and development of the revolutionary bases in Shanxi and Gansu, and aggregation of the revolutionary forces.
The Armed Uprising in 1932 accumulated the precious experience that soldiers and civilians of both provinces should conduct military struggles. Just by the fighting of the Armed Uprising, Liu Zhidan, Xie Zichang and Xi Zhongxiong came to realize that if we wanted to win the armed struggle, we had no alternatives but to go Jinggangshan Road, combine military actions with peasants movements, and build the armed workers and peasants force and establish the revolutionary bases in the countryside. The incident also was a beginning that my father led the armed struggles independently. Marked with the incident, he changed himself a Party activist into a grass-root organization leader of the Party and a military commander. In the following revolutionary road, my father, with his insistent faith and strong revolutionary willing, established and developed the revolutionary bases in both provinces together with Liu Zhidan and Xie Zichang, and was elected by chairman of the Soviet government of Shanxi and Gansu in Liyuan Village of Nanliang Town. He constantly summed up experience and lessons that is to remove interferences in armed struggles, stick to the path of independence, put the tactic known as” a cunning rabbit has three holes” into practice, depend on three guerilla zones each other, which shaped the flexible guerilla tactics and the survival ways of both withdraw and defense. As to the construction of the bases, we must consider the situation of the region, the inhabitant and the military, combine the construction of the Party, military army, political power and economy with the united front and the mass work, try to find out a whole set of efficient measures including establishment of the Party, starting of the political power, strengthening of military army and stabilization of the mass. In the construction of the political power, we should carry out “Ten Major Policies”, coordinated the relations among the Party and the mass, military and politics, and military army and the mass, mobilize the initiative in all directions. As a result, such aspects kept the Red base surviving in the complicated fighting situations, which provided a shelter to the Party Central Committee and the Red Army′s Long March, and made it possible for the strategic focus of the Chinese revolution to transfer from the Southern areas to the Northwest ones. After the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan, in accordance with the strategic deployment from the Party Central Committee, my father commanded the battle for defending the Party Central Committee, Chairman Mao and Shanxi, Gansu and Ningxia regions, working in coordination with Peng Dehuai and He Long, and turned to the Northwest battlefield, which made a brilliant contribution to liberation of the Northwest area.
During the incident, many intellectual staffs of the Party were developed and trained. From 1929 to 1931, Shanxi Provincial Committee of the CCP successively assigned Li Binrong, Li Tesheng, Xi Zhongxiong, Lv Jianren and Liu Shulin etc to plot the soldier movement in the1st battalion of the2nd regiment of the3rd Guard brigade. These pioneers, based on the circumstance of the troops, carried out the propaganda in a scrupulous way, enlightened the soldiers′ awareness. They successively developed about 30 members of the Party like Zuo Wenhui and Xu Tianjie etc, established three Party underground branches in the company, and recommended the members and soldiers who had the revolutionary progressive thoughts to get the post in companies and platoons in the White Army. Not only did these staffs play a critical role in pressing boldly forward in the incident, but showed the perseverant fighting spirit in the following revolutionary actions. After Mr. Liu Linpu was arrested in Xi′an province and died a glorious death, Liu Zhidan inscribed for him a elegiac couplet “too much greater ambition he has, the most glorious death he dies”. After that, Li Tesheng, under the arrangement of the Party organization, came to Lanzhou to go on the underground work. And when Xu Tianjie and Lv Jianren were put into prison, they still kept perseverance. Until when Xi′an Incident ended, they were rescued by the Party organization. More staffs like Zuo Wenhui and Shi Wenjie etc respectively found the Party organization and rejoined ranks of the Red Army, striving to the liberation course of the Chinese nations and Chinese people. In my memory, there was a brief interlude: one year, my father met Zhang Bangying, my father′s colleague, he said with a witty tone “Bangying, both you and I then plotted the soldier movement in the White Army, and we had fought several times, after that, we came to realize that there were two battles that we had fought each other leading the soldiers of the White Army respectively, finally, neither we took each other into death. Now, we are in our 80. That is absolutely fortunate.”
Revolutionary fighters died in a right path and they believed that the light would come soon. The Armed Uprising in Liangdan County awakened the revolutionary awareness of people in Gansu province, and brought an unceasing power of the revolutionary fighting launched by people in Gansu province. Gansu province is one of birthplaces of the Chinese nation and Chinese culture. The humane primogenitor, Fu Hsi, Nu-kua and Yellow Emperor, was born in Gansu province according to the legend. The Silk Road, with its profound influence on home and abroad, runs through the whole Gansu province, and creates the brilliant history as” the abundance of the heaven is not as comparable as that of Gansu area ”. Under the leadership of the CCP, people in Gansu established the bases in Shanxi and Gansu centered in Nanliang Town, met the encounter of the Red Army, and composed many splendid sons expressing the sense of supporting the army and cherishing the people, sang aloud the song of loving the Party, which finally experienced the liberation of our country, made excellent achievements in revolution, construction and reform of the Chinese socialism. We are delight to see: since the Reform and Opening up, under the correct leadership of the CCP, previous provincial committee and provincial governments have unified and led people to carry forward with great burdens and work hard and perseveringly. Remarkable achievements are made in Reform and Opening up and socialist modernization, and on the Old Longyuan soil witness the prosperity and development as well as the vigor looks. If my father′s ghost sees it, he would be gratified that this soil which once left his efforts and perspiration has taken place tremendously. Today, we commemorate the Armed Uprising so that we should learn and promote the revolutionary spirit that our pioneers risked their lives and advanced bravely, the scientific attitude towards seeking truth in practical ways and pursuit of truth, and the style of work that all for people and all by people. In this sense, we can continuously push forward the course of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and make due contributions to building a moderately prosperous society and realizing the dream of the great Rejuvenation of the Chinese nation!
May the future of Liangdan County more promising and life of people in Gansu province happier!